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Novel Percutaneous Epicardial Autonomic Modulation in the Canine for Atrial Fibrillation: Results of an Efficacy and Safety Study

M Madhavan, KL Venkatachalam, MJ Swale et al
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2016.

This was the first screening study at Mayo Clinic to assess the best energy source for ablation of ganglionated plexi, while minimizing myocardial damage. Following selection of pulsed field ablation (PFA) from the screening work, procedural feasibility was also demonstrated in both open-chest and sub-xiphoid models, using early prototype devices.

Electroporation of epicardial autonomic ganglia: Safety and efficacy in medium‐term canine models

D Padmanabhan, N Naksuk, AK Killu et al
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2019.

This study was performed using sub-xiphoid access with acute measurements showing that ganglionated plexi ablation produced an extension in the atrial effective refractory period (AERP). Extensive histology evaluations at four month follow-up demonstrated ablation of ganglia structures with sparing of the myocardium. The animals were resistant to AF induction at four months.

Open-chest Pulsed Electric Field Ablation of Cardiac Ganglionated Plexi in Acute Canine Models

M van Zyl, M Khabsa, JA Tri et al
J Innov Cardiac Rhythm Manage 2022.

This open-chest study was performed as full system validation before progressing to first-in-human open-chest clinical trials. It’s utilized AtriAN’s cardiac-customized pulsed field generator and devices designed specifically for open-chest epicardial treatment. Acute extensions in atrial effective refractory period (AERP) were demonstrated as well as evidence of reversible electroporation in myocardial tissue.